lunes, 26 de septiembre de 2016

NIH funds research network focused on HIV-infected youth | National Institutes of Health (NIH)

NIH funds research network focused on HIV-infected youth | National Institutes of Health (NIH)

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NIH funds research network focused on HIV-infected youth

Studies also will address HIV prevention among at-risk groups.
The National Institutes of Health has awarded funding for a research network devoted to the health and well-being of adolescents and young adults with HIV or at risk for HIV infection. The awards, up to $24 million in 2016, provide for three research centers and a data coordinating center that will make up the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions (ATN).
“Most new HIV infections occur in young people,” said Bill G. Kapogiannis, M.D., network co-director and medical officer at the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), the NIH institute providing much of the funding for the awards. “Many in this population go a long time before they find out they have HIV and often do not get the care they need.”
As a result, Dr. Kapogiannis said, their health may suffer and they risk passing the virus on to future partners. The purpose of the ATN is to get at-risk youth into care, while at the same time offering them the opportunity to participate in research trials that have the potential to improve their health and the health of others. The newly funded ATN centers will conduct studies aimed at preventing HIV infection among youth. They also will seek to enroll HIV-infected youth into treatment studies to improve their health and prevent transmission to others.
“Many at-risk youth are not aware that they need HIV and STI testing or prevention services,” said Sonia Lee, Ph.D, network co-director and program officer at NICHD. “ATN studies will focus on helping this population engage with available services and avoid behaviors that increase the risk of HIV infection.”
The awards will support three leadership hubs and a coordinating center. Researchers in the network will conduct research through collaborations within the network and with researchers in other institutions. Researchers in each leadership hub will form relationships with clinical sites in urban centers throughout the United States that have expertise in conducting research studies and in providing care for HIV-infected youth.
The principal investigators and the hubs they lead are:
  • Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus, Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles
  • Lisa Hightow-Weidman, M.D., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Patrick Sullivan, M.D., Emory University, Atlanta
  • Sylvie Naar-King, Ph.D., Wayne State University, Detroit; Bonita Stanton, Ph.D., Seton Hall University, South Orange, New Jersey; Jeffrey Parsons, Ph.D., Hunter College, New York City
Myra Carpenter, Ph.D., and Michael Hudgens, Ph.D., will serve as co-principal investigators for the coordinating center at University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. The center will serve as the central resource for network communications, cataloging of biosamples, and data management.
Additional funding for the ATN will be provided by the NIH Office of AIDS Research. Other NIH institutes that will collaborate with the ATN include the National Institute of Mental Health, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, and the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities.
About the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD): NICHD conducts and supports research in the United States and throughout the world on fetal, infant and child development; maternal, child and family health; reproductive biology and population issues; and medical rehabilitation. For more information, visit NICHD’s website.
About the National Institutes of Health (NIH): NIH, the nation's medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit www.nih.gov.
NIH…Turning Discovery Into Health®

HAN Archive - 00396|Health Alert Network (HAN)

HAN Archive - 00396|Health Alert Network (HAN)

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Zika Virus | CDC

Zika Virus | CDC

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People



Zika virus update: Zika cases in florida



At-A-Glance
  • US States and DC: 749
  • US Territories: 1,348
*Source: Pregnancy Registries as of September 15, 2016
  • US States and DC: 3,358
  • US Territories: 19,777
*Source: ArboNET as of September 21, 2016
Pregnant Women with Any Lab Evidence of Zika Virus Infection*
  • US States and DC: 749
  • US Territories: 1,348
*Source: Pregnancy Registries as of September 15, 2016


Zika Virus Disease Cases Reported to
ArboNET*
  • US States and DC: 3,358
  • US Territories: 19,777
*Source: ArboNET as of September 21, 2016

Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version - National Cancer Institute

Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version - National Cancer Institute



National Cancer Institute

Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version





SECTIONS







General Information About Unusual Cancers of Childhood

KEY POINTS

  • Unusual cancers of childhood are cancers rarely seen in children.
  • Tests are used to detect (find), diagnose, and stage unusual cancers of childhood.
  • There are three ways that cancer spreads in the body.
  • Cancer may spread from where it began to other parts of the body.


Unusual cancers of childhood are cancers rarely seen in children.

Cancer in children and adolescents is rare. Since 1975, the number of new cases of childhood cancer has slowly increased. Since 1975, the number of deaths from childhood cancer has decreased by more than half.
Unusual cancers are so rare that most children's hospitals are likely to see less than a handful of some types in several years. Because the unusual cancers are so rare, there is not a lot of information about what treatment works best. A child's treatment is often based on what has been learned from treating other children. Sometimes, information is available only from reports of the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of one child or a small group of children who were given the same type of treatment.
Many different cancers are covered in this summary. They are grouped by where they are found in the body.

Tests are used to detect (find), diagnose, and stage unusual cancers of childhood.

Tests are done to detect, diagnose, and stage cancer. The tests used depend on the type of cancer. After cancer is diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread from where the cancer began to other parts of the body. The process used to find out if cancer cells have spread to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan the best treatment.
The following tests and procedures may be used to detect, diagnose, and stage cancer:
  • Physical exam and history : An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patient’s health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.
  • Blood chemistry studies : A procedure in which a blood sample is checked to measure the amounts of certain substances released into the blood by organs and tissues in the body. An unusual (higher or lower than normal) amount of a substance can be a sign of disease.
  • X-ray : An x-ray is a type of energy beam that can go through the body and onto film.
  • CT scan (CAT scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, taken from different angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. This procedure is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography.
    ENLARGEComputed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen; drawing shows a child lying on a table that slides through the CT scanner, which takes x-ray pictures of the inside of the abdomen.
    Computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen. The child lies on a table that slides through the CT scanner, which takes x-ray pictures of the inside of the abdomen.
  • PET scan (positron emission tomography scan): A procedure to find malignanttumor cells in the body. A small amount of radioactive glucose (sugar) is injected into avein. The PET scanner rotates around the body and makes a picture of where glucose is being used in the body. Malignant tumor cells show up brighter in the picture because they are more active and take up more glucose than normal cells do.
    ENLARGEPositron emission tomography (PET) scan; drawing shows a child lying on table that slides through the PET scanner.
    Positron emission tomography (PET) scan. The child lies on a table that slides through the PET scanner. The head rest and white strap help the child lie still. A small amount of radioactive glucose (sugar) is injected into the child's vein, and a scanner makes a picture of where the glucose is being used in the body. Cancer cells show up brighter in the picture because they take up more glucose than normal cells do.
  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): A procedure that uses a magnet and radio waves to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body. The pictures are made by a computer. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI).
    ENLARGEMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen; drawing shows a child lying on a table that slides into the MRI scanner, which takes pictures of the inside of the body. The pad on the child’s abdomen helps make the pictures clearer.
    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen. The child lies on a table that slides into the MRI scanner, which takes pictures of the inside of the body. The pad on the child’s abdomen helps make the pictures clearer.
  • Ultrasound exam: A procedure in which high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) are bounced off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissues called a sonogram. The picture can be printed to be looked at later.
    ENLARGEAbdominal ultrasound; drawing shows a child lying on an exam table during an abdominal ultrasound procedure. A technician is shown pressing a transducer (a device that makes sound waves that bounce off tissues inside the body) against the skin of the abdomen. A computer screen shows a sonogram (picture).
    Abdominal ultrasound. An ultrasound transducer connected to a computer is pressed against the skin of the abdomen. The transducer bounces sound waves off internal organs and tissues to make echoes that form a sonogram (computer picture).
  • Endoscopy : A procedure to look at organs and tissues inside the body to check forabnormal areas. An endoscope is inserted through an incision (cut) in the skin or opening in the body, such as the mouth or rectum. An endoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. It may also have a tool to remove tissue or lymph node samples, which are checked under a microscope for signs of disease.
    ENLARGEUpper endoscopy; shows endoscope inserted through the mouth and esophagus and into the stomach. Inset shows patient on table having an upper endoscopy.
    Upper endoscopy. A thin, lighted tube is inserted through the mouth to look for abnormal areas in the esophagus, stomach, and first part of the small intestine.
  • Bone scan : A procedure to check if there are rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells, in the bone. A very small amount of radioactive material is injected into a vein and travels through the bloodstream. The radioactive material collects in the bones with cancer and is detected by a scanner.
    ENLARGEBone scan; drawing shows a child lying on a table that slides under the scanner, a technician operating the scanner, and a computer monitor that will show images made during the scan.
    Bone scan. A small amount of radioactive material is injected into the child's vein and travels through the blood. The radioactive material collects in the bones. As the child lies on a table that slides under the scanner, the radioactive material is detected and images are made on a computer screen.
  • Biopsy : The removal of cells or tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope by apathologist to check for signs of cancer. There are many different types of biopsy procedures. The most common types include the following:

There are three ways that cancer spreads in the body.

Cancer can spread through tissue, the lymph system, and the blood:
  • Tissue. The cancer spreads from where it began by growing into nearby areas.
  • Lymph system. The cancer spreads from where it began by getting into the lymph system. The cancer travels through the lymph vessels to other parts of the body.
  • Blood. The cancer spreads from where it began by getting into the blood. The cancer travels through the blood vessels to other parts of the body.

Cancer may spread from where it began to other parts of the body.

When cancer spreads to another part of the body, it is called metastasis. Cancer cells break away from where they began (the primary tumor) and travel through the lymph system or blood.
  • Lymph system. The cancer gets into the lymph system, travels through the lymph vessels, and forms a tumor (metastatic tumor) in another part of the body.
  • Blood. The cancer gets into the blood, travels through the blood vessels, and forms a tumor (metastatic tumor) in another part of the body.
The metastatic tumor is the same type of cancer as the primary tumor. For example, ifthyroid cancer spreads to the lung, the cancer cells in the lung are actually thyroid cancer cells. The disease is metastatic thyroid cancer, not lung cancer.


  • Updated: August 10, 2016