viernes, 26 de agosto de 2016

BMC Microbiology | Home page: 3 Articles BMC Microbiology Would like to Share with You

BMC Microbiology | Home page

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We would like to share with you a selection of articles from BMC Microbiology. We hope you find our highlights of interest.

Journal Scope
BMC Microbiology is an open access, peer-reviewed journal that considers articles on analytical and functional studies of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms, viruses and small parasites, as well as host and therapeutic responses to them and their interaction with the environment.

About the BMC Series – Open, inclusive and trusted
Serving the scientific community for over 15 years, the BMC seriesincludes 63 subject-specific journals focused on the needs of individual research communities across all areas of biology and medicine. Submit your next manuscript to one of our BMC-series journals and we will help you every step of the way-from pre-submission inquiries, quick publication upon acceptance to maximum post-publication visibility aimed at accelerating discovery of your research.

Why Publish with Us?
Considers all aspects of microbiological research
Large international readership
Rigorous peer review process

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The BioMed Central Team
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Want a stronger core? Skip the sit-ups

Harvard Medical School

Want a stronger core? Skip the sit-ups

Image: Bigstock

Sit-ups once ruled as the way to tighter abs and a slimmer waistline, while "planks" were merely flooring. Now planks — exercises in which you assume a position and hold it — are the gold standard for working your core, while classic sit-ups and crunches have fallen out of favor. Why the shift?
One reason is that sit-ups are hard on your back — they push your curved spine against the floor and work your hip flexors, the muscles that run from the thighs to the lumbar vertebrae in the lower back. When the hip flexors are too strong or too tight, they tug on the lower spine, which can create lower back discomfort.

Get your copy of Core Exercises

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Core Exercises
Want to bring more power to athletic pursuits? Build up your balance and stability? Or are you simply hoping to make everyday acts like bending, turning, and reaching easier? A strong, flexible core underpins all these goals. Core muscles need to be strong, yet flexible, and core fitness should be part of every exercise program.

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Second, planks recruit a better balance of muscles on the front, sides, and back of the body during exercise than do sit-ups, which target just a few muscles. (Your core goes far beyond your abdominal muscles.)
Finally, activities of daily living, as well as sports and recreational activities, call on your muscles to work together, not in isolation. Sit-ups or crunches strengthen just a few muscle groups. Through dynamic patterns of movement, a good core workout helps strengthen the entire set of core muscles you use every day.
For more on the benefits of strengthening your core, buy Core Exercises, a Special Health Report from Harvard Medical School.

Core exercise workout: 12 tips for exercising safely and effectively

Image: Motionshooter/iStock

1. Warm up. Before a full core workout, march in place for several minutes while swinging your arms, or dance to a few songs. It's safe to skip this if you've already warmed up through other activities.
2. Form first. Good form means aligning your body as described in the exercise instructions and moving smoothly through an exercise.
3. Reps second. Quality trumps quantity. Do only as many reps as you can manage with excellent form. Likewise, hold a position only for as long as you can manage with excellent form. Plan to work up to the full number of reps or seconds gradually. Once you can do a full set, consider adding a set (up to three sets).
4. Feel no pain. Core work shouldn't hurt. Stop if you feel any pain (especially if it's lower back pain). Check your form and try again. If pain persists, check with a doctor or physical therapist before repeating that exercise.
5. Practice often. You'll see the best gains if you consistently do core exercises three times a week.
6. Photos tell only part of the story. Photos can make core work look easier than it actually is. Do your research, and carefully read instructions when learning about the tips and techniques for each exercise.
7. Brace yourself. Tighten your core muscles before starting the "Movement" in each exercise. Here's how: while sitting, standing, or lying on your back, gently but firmly tighten your abdominal muscles, drawing your navel in toward the small of your back. Tuck in your tailbone slightly, too. Once you're braced, a gentle push from any direction should not cause you to lose your balance. Some trainers suggest imagining that you're pulling in your muscles to zip up a tight pair of jeans. Either way, practice makes perfect. Try bracing or zipping up for 10 seconds at a time while breathing normally.
8. Reach beyond abs. A rippling six-pack and a weak back are a recipe for disaster. So don't just focus on abdominal exercises that buff appearances. A program that works all core muscles protects your back and boosts sports performance.
9. Be flexible. Core flexibility is as important as core strength. In fact, too much strength without flexibility can make your back throb and interfere with smooth, powerful moves in sports like tennis and golf. So don't skimp on stretches.
10. Start with stability, then add instability. Master exercise movement patterns, such as lunges, bridges, and planks, on a flat surface. Core work gets harder when an unstable surface, such as a stability ball or Bosu, is introduced because your muscles have to work harder to hold a position steadily or stabilize you while moving. Take time to perfect hard exercises on a stable surface before shifting to an unstable one.
11. If it's too hard, drop down. Do fewer reps or hold for fewer seconds. Still too difficult? Try an easier variation of the exercise. If you're still struggling, try fewer reps (or seconds) of the easier variation.
12. If it's too easy, move up. As it feels easier to do exercises with excellent form, first add reps (up to 10) or seconds. Next, add sets or try a harder variation. As you move up to more challenging exercises, leave the simpler ones behind.
For more on the advice on how to best strengthen your core, buy Core Exercises, a Special Health Report from Harvard Medical School.

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Core Exercises

Featured content:

The importance of your core
Safety first
Posture, alignment, and angles: Striking the right pose
Getting started
Special Bonus Section: Setting goals and motivating yourself
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Medical Marijuana's Pain Relief May Work Better for Men: MedlinePlus

Medical Marijuana's Pain Relief May Work Better for Men: MedlinePlus

MedlinePlus Trusted Health Information for You

Medical Marijuana's Pain Relief May Work Better for Men

Study found male users reporting bigger benefits compared to women
By Robert Preidt
Wednesday, August 24, 2016
WEDNESDAY, Aug. 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking a joint provides greater pain relief to men than to women, a new study indicates.
Researchers asked 42 recreational marijuana smokers to place one hand in extremely cold water until they could no longer tolerate the pain. They did this twice: Once after smoking marijuana and once after puffing on a placebo.
After smoking marijuana, men reported they were significantly less sensitive to pain. They were also more able tolerate pain.
While women reported they were somewhat more able to tolerate pain after smoking marijuana, it brought them no significant pain relief.
Despite the differences in pain relief, men and women had similar levels of intoxication after smoking marijuana.
The findings come at a time when more people are turning to medical marijuana for pain relief.
"This study underscores the importance of including both men and women in clinical trials aimed at understanding the potential therapeutic and negative effects of cannabis, particularly as more people use cannabinoid products for recreational or medical purposes," said study author Ziva Cooper. She is an associate professor of clinical neurobiology at Columbia University Medical Center, in New York City.
More research is needed to understand the factors affecting marijuana's pain-relieving effects, including its strength and whether it is smoked or taken by mouth.
The study, recently published online in the journal Drug and Alcohol Dependence, was funded by the U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse.
Cooper has received funding from INSYS Therapeutics Inc and is a consultant to KannaLife Sciences and PharmaCann, LLC. Fellow study author Margaret Haney has received funding from INSYS Therapeutics Inc. and from Aelis Farma. The companies are commercial sellers of medical marijuana.
SOURCE: Columbia University Medical Center, news release, Aug. 18, 2016
News stories are provided by HealthDay and do not reflect the views of MedlinePlus, the National Library of Medicine, the National Institutes of Health, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or federal policy.
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Kids' Mild Brain Injury Can Have Long-Term Effects: MedlinePlus

Kids' Mild Brain Injury Can Have Long-Term Effects: MedlinePlus

MedlinePlus Trusted Health Information for You

Kids' Mild Brain Injury Can Have Long-Term Effects

Early head trauma linked to psychiatric, financial issues as adults, study finds
Wednesday, August 24, 2016
HealthDay news image
WEDNESDAY, Aug. 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Young people who suffer even mild head trauma are more likely to have serious issues later on, including psychiatric problems and premature death, a new study suggests.
Researchers compared 100,000 Swedes who suffered at least one traumatic brain injury (TBI) before age 25 with their unaffected siblings. The investigators found that those who had had head injuries were consistently more likely to die early and have problems functioning as adults.
The effects of an early life TBI -- a blow to the head or penetrating head injury that disrupts brain function -- were more striking among those who were older when they were injured, whose injury was more severe, or who had repeated head injuries, the findings showed.
"The key finding is that these increased risks remained elevated even after comparison with unaffected siblings, which is consistent with [the notion] that TBIs partly cause these outcomes," study author Dr. Seena Fazel said. Fazel is a professor of forensic psychiatry at the University of Oxford in England.
"The worst outcome is clearly premature mortality," Fazel added, "but after that the increased risks of psychiatric hospitalization are notable."
About 1.7 million Americans suffer a traumatic brain injury each year, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Falls and motor vehicle crashes are the leading causes.
Fazel and his colleagues analyzed long-term data of cases in which most patients had one mild head injury, or concussion. Participants, who were born between 1973 and 1985, were 13 years old on average when they were hurt. After age 26, they were followed for an average of eight years.
Previous research on long-term health of people with TBI has addressed more severe injuries and diagnoses. But Fazel noted that his study uncovered risks from even mild head injuries.
TBI consistently was linked to premature death, psychiatric treatment, and low educational attainment. Those who had TBI were also more likely to wind up on welfare or dependent on disability pensions.
Notably, those who had TBI had a more than 10 percent risk of being diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder in adulthood and a 2 percent risk of dying prematurely. Compared to their unaffected siblings, TBI patients were twice as likely to be hospitalized for psychiatric problems and 80 percent more likely to receive a disability pension, according to the report.
Dr. Bradley Sandella, program director of sports medicine at Christiana Care Health System in Wilmington, Del., said he wasn't surprised by most of the findings.
"For some time, there has been speculation within the medical community that there is a strong link between traumatic brain injury and psychiatric issues," said Sandella, who wasn't involved in the new research.
"Essentially, the belief is that the brain injury can trigger or exacerbate the symptoms of a psychiatric illness," he added. "I found it somewhat surprising that there was a higher increase in mortality at a younger age. While I am aware there could be a minor spike in suicides, a 2 percent absolute risk increase is surprisingly high."
Fazel and Sandella agreed that the findings underscore the need to prevent and manage TBIs.
Certain efforts have already paid off, Sandella noted. Concussions among school-age athletes are being better handled by teaching football players safer tackling techniques and keeping athletes off the field when a head injury is suspected.
"However, more needs to be done, including the banning of dangerous or reckless plays in sports that place people at risk for injuries," Sandella said.
Fazel zeroed in on younger children. "Improving parental supervision for toddlers and preschool children [is recommended], as falling is the most common form of TBI in young children," he said.
Sandella said early involvement of a mental health professional in management of concussions will help head off future psychiatric issues.
"Collaborative efforts can have a dramatically positive effect on the patient's journey toward optimal health after a traumatic brain injury," he said.
The study was published online Aug. 23 in the journal PLOS Medicine.
SOURCES: Seena Fazel, M.D., professor, forensic psychiatry, and Wellcome Trust senior research fellow, University of Oxford, United Kingdom; Bradley J. Sandella, D.O., program director, sports medicine, Christiana Care Health System, Wilmington, Del.; Aug. 23, 2016, PLOS Medicine, online
News stories are provided by HealthDay and do not reflect the views of MedlinePlus, the National Library of Medicine, the National Institutes of Health, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or federal policy.
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Traumatic Brain Injury