martes, 24 de enero de 2017

MRIs Might Help Guide Preemies' Neurological Care: MedlinePlus Health News

MRIs Might Help Guide Preemies' Neurological Care: MedlinePlus Health News



MedlinePlus Trusted Health Information for You

MRIs Might Help Guide Preemies' Neurological Care

Brain scans after birth may pinpoint potential developmental problems, study finds
Wednesday, January 18, 2017
WEDNESDAY, Jan. 18, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- MRI scans shortly after birth might help determine which premature babies have sustained a brain injury that will affect their development, a new study reports.
It appears that doctors can predict which premature infants will suffer from future motor, thinking and language problems by using MRI scans to identify specific injuries to the white matter in their brain, said senior researcher Dr. Steven Miller.
Miller is head of neurology at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Canada.
Fluctuations in blood pressure that occur regularly in preemies might cause a lack of blood flow or oxygen to the brain, damaging the white matter, Miller explained.
In addition, said Dr. Gregory Lodygensky, a clinical investigator at the University of Montreal, white matter injuries also occur due to inflammation and infection suffered by the very vulnerable infants.
Specifically, the study found that white matter injuries in the frontal lobes of the brain appear to have the worst impact on a baby's future development, compared with damage to white matter elsewhere in the brain.
For example, preemies with larger frontal lobe injuries were 79 times more likely to develop thinking problems than infants without such injuries. And they had 64 times greater odds of problems with motor development, the researchers reported.
The frontal lobe is the area of the brain that regulates problem solving, memory, language skills and voluntary movement skills, the study authors said.
"As a clinician, when I see lesions in the frontal lobe, I am paying much more attention to them," Miller said. "I'm starting to spend time thinking about where the lesions are, not just how big they are."
More than one in 10 babies is born prematurely in the United States -- before 37 weeks' gestation, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
And more than 70 percent of babies born before 31 weeks' gestation endure injury to their white matter -- vital tissue linking different regions of the brain, Lodygensky noted in an editorial accompanying the study.
However, doctors have so far been unable to prove a direct link between this damage and future developmental problems, Miller said.
Brain scan research has focused primarily on the total volume of white matter injury, but some children with large amounts of brain injury develop normally while others with less injury suffer from developmental problems, Miller noted.
"We've seen these clinical scores are not perfect predictors of how children will subsequently do," he said. "We wanted to move the conversation forward, to not look at how much injury there was to the brain but to understand how the location of the injuries impacts outcomes for the babies."
Miller and his team performed MRI scans on 216 babies born at an average 28 weeks of gestation. The investigators assessed both the volume and location of white matter injury.
The research team then revisited 58 of the babies at 18 months of age, performing motor, thinking and language assessments to determine how their development had proceeded. These assessments revealed that damage in the frontal lobes mattered more than damage in other brain locations.
A greater volume of these small areas of injury in the frontal lobe could predict thinking problems, the researchers found. However, a greater volume of small areas of injury, no matter where they were located in the brain, could predict movement problems at 18 months, the team discovered.
Dr. Manikum Moodley, a pediatric neurologist who was not involved with the study, said, "It definitely does provide compelling evidence that doing MRIs is of immense benefit in counseling parents of children born prematurely regarding their neurological status."
Moodley and Lodygensky added that the MRI itself poses no risk to premature infants.
However, sedating the baby to get a good scan does pose risks, so the scans should be done without sedation, said Moodley, who is with Cleveland Clinic Children's Hospital in Ohio.
In addition, doctors need to be careful moving the fragile baby from the neonatal intensive care unit to the hospital's MRI unit for the brain scans, Miller and Moodley said.
Miller pointed out that such MRI scans will be valuable in detecting children who will need additional education and physical rehabilitation to compensate for developmental problems.
Lodygensky predicted that, in the future, the scans also could help determine which preemies will benefit from any drugs and therapies developed to prevent white matter injuries.
"I am personally convinced that MRI will be part of our ongoing strategy to protect the brains of premature babies," Lodygensky said.
The report was released online Jan. 18 in Neurology.
SOURCES: Steven Miller, M.D., C.M., head of neurology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada; Gregory Lodygensky, M.D., clinical investigator, CHU Research Center, University of Montreal, Canada; Manikum Moodley, M.D., pediatric neurologist, Cleveland Clinic Children's Hospital; Jan. 18, 2017, Neurology, online
HealthDay
News stories are written and provided by HealthDay and do not reflect federal policy, the views of MedlinePlus, the National Library of Medicine, the National Institutes of Health, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
More Health News on:
MRI Scans
Premature Babies

Ticks Carrying Lyme Disease Confirmed in Eastern National Parks: MedlinePlus Health News

Ticks Carrying Lyme Disease Confirmed in Eastern National Parks: MedlinePlus Health News

MedlinePlus Trusted Health Information for You

Ticks Carrying Lyme Disease Confirmed in Eastern National Parks

U.S. National Park Service and CDC advise using insect repellents on clothes and skin
By Randy Dotinga
Tuesday, January 17, 2017
HealthDay news image
TUESDAY, Jan. 17, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Planning a hiking trip in an eastern U.S. national park? Better pack tick repellent -- a new study found these parks are home to ticks that carry Lyme disease.
Blacklegged ticks -- also known as deer ticks -- carrying Lyme disease were found in nine national parks: Acadia National Park in Maine; Catoctin Mountain Park and Monocacy National Battlefield in Maryland; Fire Island National Seashore in Long Island, N.Y.; Gettysburg National Military Park in Pennsylvania; Rock Creek Park in Washington, D.C., and Manassas National Battlefield Park, Prince William Forest Park and Shenandoah National Park in Virginia.
This is the first time researchers have confirmed that the ticks are living at the parks, although it's long been suspected that the ticks were there because of human Lyme disease infections.
"We know Lyme disease is increasing both in numbers of infections and in geographic range in the United States," said researcher Tammi Johnson in a news release from the Entomological Society of America. Johnson is with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
"This is the first large-scale survey in multiple national parks, and though suspected, it had not been previously confirmed that ticks in many of these parks were infected. It's quite likely that ticks infected with Lyme disease spirochetes are present in other parks in Lyme disease endemic areas, too," she explained.
Lyme disease symptoms include fever, headache and rash. Left untreated, the infection can spread to the heart, joints and nervous system, according to the CDC.
Visitors to the parks can reduce their risk of infection by following these guidelines, according to the U.S. National Park Service and the CDC:
  • Use insect repellents that contain 20-30 percent DEET. Apply them to exposed skin and clothing. You can use permethrin-containing products on clothing as well.
  • Don't sit or lean on logs when you're out on the trail.
  • Check yourself for ticks -- and check pets and gear. Remove any ticks you find attached. Once you leave an area that's home to ticks, shower within two hours. This will help rid your body of ticks.
  • To kill ticks on your clothing, put your clothes in a dryer and heat them on high setting for 10 minutes.
"The results of this study serve as a reminder that while enjoying the parks, visitors can and should take steps to help protect themselves and their loved ones from tick and other bites," Johnson said.
The study findings were published in the Journal of Medical Entomology.
SOURCE: Entomological Society of America, news release, Jan. 3, 2017
HealthDay
News stories are written and provided by HealthDay and do not reflect federal policy, the views of MedlinePlus, the National Library of Medicine, the National Institutes of Health, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Higher Risk of Heart Disease for Blacks in Poorer Neighborhoods: MedlinePlus Health News

Higher Risk of Heart Disease for Blacks in Poorer Neighborhoods: MedlinePlus Health News

MedlinePlus Trusted Health Information for You

Higher Risk of Heart Disease for Blacks in Poorer Neighborhoods

Preventive measures must address social policies, researcher says
By Robert Preidt
Wednesday, January 18, 2017
HealthDay news image
TUESDAY, Jan. 17, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Black Americans who live in poor neighborhoods are at higher risk for heart disease and stroke than those who live in wealthier areas, a new study finds.
Researchers analyzed data collected from black men and women in Jackson, Miss., who participated in a government-funded study between 2000 and 2011. They also reviewed information collected in the 2000 U.S. Census.
Every decrease on a scale of socioeconomic status was associated with a 25 percent rise in heart disease risk, the researchers found.
When the researchers assessed violence and disorder levels in neighborhoods, there was a similar increase in risk of heart disease for each negative step on the scale. But, the research didn't prove neighborhood conditions caused poor health.
"For decades, centuries, even, researchers have linked adverse neighborhood economic and social conditions to health," said study leader Sharrelle Barber.
Violence and disorder are among the issues that need to be addressed, said Barber, a research fellow at Drexel University's School of Public Health in Philadelphia.
"These are symptoms of the broader issues of racial and economic inequality that is rampant in urban areas across the United States," she said in a university news release.
These issues arise from decades of concentrated poverty, she added. Particulars included limited opportunities for good jobs, proper education and other resources necessary for the individual and community well-being, Barber said.
"One way of addressing this issue is to invest in economic and social policies at the neighborhood level -- such as creating jobs and educational opportunities -- in tandem with evidence-based efforts to reduce violence," Barber concluded.
The study was recently published in the American Journal of Public Health.
The ongoing Jackson Heart Study involves 5,300 black adults in Mississippi. It's the largest single-site study of heart disease in a black American population, according to the U.S. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
SOURCE: Drexel University, news release
HealthDay
News stories are written and provided by HealthDay and do not reflect federal policy, the views of MedlinePlus, the National Library of Medicine, the National Institutes of Health, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
More Health News on:
African American Health
Health Disparities
Heart Diseases

Could Grilled, Smoked Meats Lower Survival After Breast Cancer?: MedlinePlus Health News

Could Grilled, Smoked Meats Lower Survival After Breast Cancer?: MedlinePlus Health News

MedlinePlus Trusted Health Information for You

Could Grilled, Smoked Meats Lower Survival After Breast Cancer?

Study can't prove cause and effect, but raises questions about beef, pork, lamb cooked at high temps
Wednesday, January 18, 2017
HealthDay news image
WEDNESDAY, Jan. 18, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Research has suggested that diets high in barbecued, grilled and smoked meats could increase the risk of breast cancer. Now, a new study finds these cooking methods may also lower survival after a breast cancer diagnosis.
The study involved more than 1,500 women who had been diagnosed with the cancer in 1996 and 1997. The study participants were followed for nearly 20 years.
Eating lots of grilled, barbecued or smoked meat before their cancer diagnosis was linked with a 23 percent increased risk of dying from any cause during the follow-up period compared with low intake, the researchers said.
And continuing to eat lots of meat cooked in this fashion after breast cancer seemed to increase those odds, the findings suggested.
Beef, pork and lamb, in particular, were singled out as potentially troublesome.
Grilling, smoking and cooking meats at high temperatures produce cancer-causing substances, said study researcher Marilie Gammon.
However, while the study suggests that habitually eating grilled, barbecued and smoked meats may increase the risk of death after breast cancer, it cannot prove cause and effect.
"It is not a randomized clinical trial, where participants are randomly allocated to receive the exposure or not," said Gammon. She's a professor of epidemiology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
But, Gammon added, this study "is the first to report on whether intake of grilled and smoked meat is associated with mortality after breast cancer."
The study participants were from Long Island, N.Y. The women were interviewed about their eating habits after their breast cancer diagnosis, and again about five years later. The researchers took into account numerous factors in classifying patients as having low or high meat intake, including types of meats eaten and during which seasons.
After roughly 18 years of follow-up, the investigators found that nearly 600 of the women had died, 237 of them from breast cancer-related causes. The researchers then looked to see if the type and amount of meat consumed had any link with the risk of death during the study period.
In background notes, the researchers pointed out that harmful hydrocarbons created by grilling and smoking meats have been linked to breast cancer.
To minimize risk, the American Cancer Society suggests choosing lean cuts and trimming excess fat. Fat dripping onto hot coals causes the smoke that can contain potential cancer-causing agents. Less fatty meats produce less smoke when grilled.
Stop short of cooking meat so it is charred and black, the cancer society advises. If a portion of the meat is charred, don't eat that part.
This area of research is in its early stages, Gammon said. More studies are needed before specific recommendations can be made to breast cancer patients.
Until then, women should discuss the issue with their doctors and be alert to additional studies on the topic as they come out, Gammon advised.
The study was published online Jan. 4 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.
SOURCES: Marilie Gammon, Ph.D., professor of epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Jan. 4, 2017, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, online
HealthDay
News stories are written and provided by HealthDay and do not reflect federal policy, the views of MedlinePlus, the National Library of Medicine, the National Institutes of Health, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
More Health News on:
Breast Cancer
Nutrition

Vision Impairment and Blindness Update

Vision Impairment and Blindness Update

Vision Impairment and Blindness Update

New on the MedlinePlus Vision Impairment and Blindness page:
01/17/2017 11:30 PM EST

Source: National Library of Medicine - NIH
01/17/2017 11:30 PM EST

Source: National Library of Medicine - NIH

Many Women With Eating Disorders Do Recover, Study Finds: MedlinePlus Health News

Many Women With Eating Disorders Do Recover, Study Finds: MedlinePlus Health News

MedlinePlus Trusted Health Information for You

Many Women With Eating Disorders Do Recover, Study Finds

But it may take years or longer, researchers acknowledge
Friday, January 20, 2017
HealthDay news image
FRIDAY, Jan. 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The media often portrays women with the eating disorders anorexia and bulimia as untreatable, and sadly, in about one-third of cases that may be true, new research suggests.
But the same small study found that nearly two-thirds of these women did recover from these eating disorders -- though in some cases it took more than a decade for them to get better.
"The findings inspire me to remain hopeful in my work as a clinician with these patients," said study lead author Kamryn Eddy. She's co-director of the Eating Disorders Clinical and Research Program at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston.
An estimated 20 million females and 10 million males in the United States will have an eating disorder. Death rates from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are estimated to be around 4 to 5 percent, the National Eating Disorders Association says. Anorexia is characterized as self-starvation leading to severe weight loss, while bulimia involves frequent cycles of binge-eating and purging.
Previous research has suggested that only half of people with eating disorders recover, the authors of the new study said.
To better understand the long-term prospects for these patients, the researchers recruited 246 women with an eating disorder. All were treated at outpatient clinics in the Boston area from 1987 to 1991.
There were 110 women who had bulimia, the rest had anorexia. On average, they were in their 20s when the study began. Ninety-five percent of the participants were white.
The researchers ended up focusing on 176 patients who agreed to take part in a follow-up at 20 to 25 years. Of the others, 18 died, 15 could not be located and 37 declined to participate.
The researchers found that among those who took part in the 20-to-25-year follow-up, 68 percent of those with bulimia and 63 percent of those with anorexia had recovered. The researchers defined recovery as going without symptoms for at least a year.
"Our study showed that given time, most individuals with anorexia and bulimia will recover," Eddy said.
"Time to recovery from bulimia is faster than recovery in anorexia," she said, typically taking less than 10 years.
More than two-thirds of bulimia patients had recovered by nine years, the study found. If patients don't recover from bulimia by a decade, it's not likely that they will, Eddy added.
As for anorexia, Eddy said, "recovery continues to occur over time, even well beyond 10 years of illness." Only 31 percent of study participants with anorexia had recovered by nine years, but by the 20-to-25 year follow-up, 63 percent had, the study found.
It's not clear which treatments were most helpful to these women.
"Participants received all types of treatment, including outpatient individual, family, and group therapy, inpatient and residential treatment, nutritional counseling, medications and medical care," Eddy said.
"Many continued to receive treatment on and off throughout the study period," she added.
Also, Eddy said, it may not be possible to generalize the study findings to people seeking treatment in 2016.
Cynthia Bulik is a professor and founding director of the University of North Carolina Center of Excellence for Eating Disorders. She praised the new study, but said "it is disheartening that 7.3 percent of the participants died during the follow-up period, which is consistent with what we know about the lethality of these illnesses."
She added: "We are not doing a good enough job in treating these illnesses. There are no medications that are effective in the treatment of anorexia, in part because we do not yet fully understand the biology and the genetics of the illness."
The antidepressant Prozac (fluoxetine) is approved for treatment of bulimia, Bulik said, but its long-term value isn't known.
The good news, she said, is that while recovery from anorexia is slow, it's still possible even in someone who's suffered for more than 10 years.
"Just because a treatment approach did not work in the first five years of illness, for example, does not mean it won't be effective in year 15," Bulik noted.
As for bulimia, she said recovery is quicker, but patients may relapse even decades later. "People with histories of both disorders should always remain vigilant for the re-emergence of symptoms," she added.
The study was published recently in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry.
SOURCES: Kamryn Eddy, Ph.D., co-director, Eating Disorders Clinical and Research Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, and associate professor of psychology, Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston; Cynthia Bulik, Ph.D., professor and founding director, University of North Carolina Center of Excellence for Eating Disorders, Chapel Hill; Dec. 20, 2016, Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
HealthDay
News stories are written and provided by HealthDay and do not reflect federal policy, the views of MedlinePlus, the National Library of Medicine, the National Institutes of Health, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.