martes, 22 de agosto de 2017

CDC Around the World: World Mosquito Day

CDC Around the WOrld

August 21, 2017

IN THIS ISSUE


Spotlight on Topic:

World Mosquito Day

Mosquito
Infographic

INFOGRAPHIC

Malaria Worldwide

In 2015 there were 212 million new cases of malaria worldwide... View Infographic
A Visit to the CDC Insectary

VIDEO

Dangerous Creatures - A Visit to the CDC Insectary

This video for young people ages 8 to 12, takes viewers to CDC's insectary, where they learn from CDC researchers about mosquitoes and malaria ... Watch Video
Story Mobile Vector Surveillance

STORY

Mobile Vector Surveillance? There’s an App for That

Mosquitoes are known for transmitting several dangerous diseases. But they are also the inspiration for an innovative new tool that can help with critical data collection... Read Story


IN THE NEWS








CALENDAR

August 20: World Mosquito Day
September: Leukemia and Lymphoma Awareness Month
September 9: International Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Awareness Day
September 28World Rabies Day
September 29World Heart Day 

Mobile Vector Surveillance? There’s an App for That

Mobile Vector Surveillance? There’s an App for That

CDC Around the WOrld

Mobile Vector Surveillance? There’s an App for That



Mosquitoes are known for transmitting several dangerous diseases. But they are also 

the inspiration for an innovative new tool that can help with critical data collection.

From the Haiti pilot. The vector surveillance technician (L. Balthazar, holding the tablet) using the app to collect demographic information from the head of the household. Once community members saw how he entered their information into the app, they were eager to participate and volunteer their households for vector surveillance.

From the Haiti pilot. The vector surveillance technician (L. Balthazar, holding the tablet) using the app to collect demographic information from the head of the household. Once community members saw how he entered their information into the app, they were eager to participate and volunteer their households for vector surveillance.


This August 20, many will be thinking about mosquitoes. Not just because they are a common summertime nuisance. It’s because this day marks World Mosquito Day, when 120 years ago, Sir Ronald Ross made his landmark discovery: malaria parasites could be transmitted from infected patients to Anopheles mosquitoes. However, for entomologists and vector (insects and other animals that transmit diseases) control technicians, mosquitoes are top of mind every day.
Today, mosquitoes are considered to be the most dangerous animals in the world, as they transmit several deadly and debilitating diseases, including malariadengueyellow feverlymphatic filariasischikungunya and the Zika virus. For these scientists, staying one step ahead of the mosquito is critical to better understand disease transmission, control, and eventually, elimination.
From the Dominican Republic pilot. The vector surveillance team (national level in white) performing a mosquito breeding site assessment in a home (homeowner in stripes) while the local surveillance technician (in green, holding the tablet) enters demographic information and results into the app. A member of CDC’s Epi Info team (J. Aponte, in gray) was also on hand to address any technical challenges during the pilot.
From the Dominican Republic pilot. The vector surveillance team (national level in white) performing a mosquito breeding site assessment in a home (homeowner in stripes) while the local surveillance technician (in green, holding the tablet) enters demographic information and results into the app. A member of CDC’s Epi Info team (J. Aponte, in gray) was also on hand to address any technical challenges during the pilot.
CDC’s emergency response to the recent epidemics of Zika catalyzed a team of scientists focused on Integrated Vector Management in the agency’s Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria and the agency’s Epi Info team to collaborate on a tool for data collection on disease vectors. Using CDC’s open source data collection software program, Epi InfoTM 7*, the Epi Info Vector Surveillance App was designed to improve data quality, standardize data for better comparisons among vector control programs, and save critical time in the field.
The app was designed for surveillance of all types of mosquito vectors: it facilitates collection of data on Aedes aegypti (the mosquito that transmits Zika, dengue, yellow fever, and chikungunya viruses); Culex mosquitoes (which transmit Filariasis and West Nile), and Anopheles mosquitoes (which transmit malaria).
The tablet-based wireless app has five data entry modules that support entry of data from: 1) mosquito trapping, 2) mosquito surveys, 3) cone bioassays, 4) the CDC bottle bioassay for insecticide resistance testing, and 5) vector control activities. The technology captures information by capitalizing on capabilities of modern tablets such as Global Position System (GPS) tracking and also has the ability to scan traditional barcodes and QR codes.
Once entomologists and vector surveillance techs enter surveillance data into the app, the data are uploaded to the Cloud, where they are then sent to an analysis dashboard. The dashboard automatically generates summaries, surveillance maps, visualizations and analysis of entomological indicators so decision-makers can quickly and in near real-time review their data and plan their appropriate responses about when, where, and how to begin vector control measures. By automating the analysis and display, users can focus on the more important issue of focusing on determining the right control method at the right place and time for maximum public health impact.
Currently, the app is in pilot testing status, and training of entomologists and vector surveillance technicians will continue through the end of October 2017. Training has already occurred in the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Sierra Leone, and will soon occur in Trinidad & Tobago and Brazil.  The app is currently available in three languages: English, Spanish and French (with a request from the Brazilian Ministry of Health for a Portuguese version). Pilot testing has proven to be so successful, that every country that has tested it plans to incorporate it into their national vector surveillance program.
Once the final pilot test is completed and all adjustments to the technology have been made, the app will be available for free download from the Google Play store, bringing this useful tool for vector control surveillance and control within reach for anyone with access to the Internet.
Learn more about what CDC is doing to control mosquitoes and the diseases they spread, such as malarialymphatic filariasis and other vector-borne diseases.
Epi Info™ is a suite software tools designed for easy data entry form and database construction, a customized data entry experience, and data analyses with epidemiologic statistics, maps, and graphs for public health professionals who may lack an information technology background. Among its uses are for outbreak investigations; for developing small to mid-sized disease surveillance systems; as analysis, visualization, and reporting (AVR) components of larger systems.

Dangerous Creatures - A visit to the CDC Insectary

New cases of Malaria

New cases of Malaria

In 2015 there were 212 million new cases of malaria worldwide.

In 2015 there were 212 million new cases of Malaria Worldwide

Men and Zika | Zika Virus | CDC

Men and Zika | Zika Virus | CDC

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People

Couple image



Men with Pregnant Partners

 Use condoms or don’t have sex for the entire pregnancy
  • After travel to an area with risk of Zika, use condoms every time you have sex for the entire pregnancy. To be effective, condoms should be used from start to finish, every time during vaginal, anal, and oral sex.
  • Not having sex eliminates the risk of sexually transmitting Zika to your partner. It is important to help protect your partner throughout her pregnancy because:
    • You may have been infected with Zika and not know it, since it often does not cause symptoms.
    • There is no available test to know if you have Zika in your semen or how likely you are to pass Zika through sex. Zika can stay in your semen and may be passed to your partner (and the fetus) for months after infection, even if you have no symptoms.
    • Zika infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects.
  • Pregnancy and Zika

Men Planning Pregnancy with Their Partners

 Wait at least 6 months before trying to conceive
  • After travel to an area with risk of Zika, wait at least 6 months after you return, or after symptoms start (if you develop symptoms), before trying to conceive with your partner.
  • During this time, use condoms to help protect your partner from getting Zika through sex.
  • Protect your partner so she can have a healthy pregnancy
    • You may have been infected with Zika and not know it, since it often does not cause symptoms.
    • There is no available test to know if you have Zika in your semen or how likely you are to pass Zika through sex. Zika can stay in your semen and may be passed to your partner (and the fetus) for months after infection, even if you have no symptoms.
    • If your partner becomes pregnant and infected with Zika, it can cause serious birth defects.
For more about Zika risks and considerations

Men Who Are Not Concerned About Pregnancy

 Consider using condoms or not having sex for at least 6 months
  • The 6-month period should start when you return from travel or after symptoms start, if you develop symptoms.
  • This will help protect your partner from getting Zika through sex if you’re infected and don’t know it. Condoms are the only method for preventing both pregnancy and the spread of Zika.
  • If you or your partner has symptoms of Zika or have concerns, talk to a doctor or other healthcare provider.




Traveling with Children

  • Most children infected with Zika have no symptoms or have only mild illness, similar to adults with Zika infection.
  • CDC’s travel guidance for areas with risk of Zika applies to infants and children, as well as adults. However, there are special things to consider when protecting your baby or child from mosquito bites. See What Parents Should Know about Zika.




If You Have Symptoms of Zika and Might Have Been Exposed

  • See a doctor or other healthcare provider right away if you have fever, rash, headache, joint pain, red eyes, or muscle pain and you have recently traveled to an area with risk of Zika.
  • Take medicine such as acetaminophen to reduce fever and pain.
  • Don’t take aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), like ibuprofen until a healthcare provider diagnoses your condition and can rule out the possibility that you have dengue. Dengue is another disease spread by mosquitoes that causes symptoms similar to Zika and can cause internal bleeding. NSAIDS can increase the risk of bleeding if you have dengue.
  • If you are taking medicine for another medical condition, talk to a doctor or other healthcare provider before taking other medicines.
  • Make sure to take precautions to prevent the spread of Zika.
    • Use insect repellent to prevent spreading Zika to mosquitoes around you
    • Consider using condoms for at least 6 months after symptoms start (or for the entire pregnancy, if your partner is pregnant) to help protect your partner.

Men and Zika | Zika Virus | CDC

Men and Zika | Zika Virus | CDC

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People

Couple image

Did You Know?

  • Zika virus (or Zika) is still a risk in many parts of the world.
  • Zika is spread primarily through mosquito bites, but it can also spread through sex.
  • A pregnant woman can pass Zika to her fetus, which can cause serious birth defects.
  • Many people infected with Zika won’t have symptoms or will only have mild symptoms. For this reason, if you travel to an area with risk of Zika, you can be infected with Zika and not know it.
  • You can pass Zika to others through sex, even months after infection. This means Zika is a concern not only for women who are pregnant or may become pregnant but also for their partners.

How Zika Spreads

How Zika Spreads thumbnail
How Zika Spreads

What Men Can Do to Stop the Spread of Zika During and After Travel

  • If you have a pregnant partner, she should not travel to areas with risk of ZikaSee more information on precautions pregnant women should take.
  • If you and your partner are planning a pregnancy, talk to your doctor or other healthcare provider before traveling to areas with risk of Zika.
  • Because you can be infected and spread Zika to others without knowing it, it is important to take precautions even if you don’t have symptoms.
  • There is no specific medicine or vaccine for Zika. But there are steps you can take to prevent Zika.

If You Travel to an Area with Risk of Zika

There are two key steps you should take to prevent Zika.

1.  Prevent Mosquito Bites During Travel and for 3 weeks After Your Return

illustration of a mosquito crossed through by a red mark
Even if you don’t have symptoms
  • Preventing mosquito bites while traveling will lower your chances of getting Zika from infected mosquitoes.
  • Preventing mosquito bites after you return will lower your chances of spreading Zika to mosquitoes back home. Local mosquitoes can get infected from biting you, then bite other people and spread Zika to them.

2.  Use Condoms (or Don’t Have Sex) During and After Travel

illustration of a box of condoms
This will prevent spreading Zika through sex.
The period of time during which you should use condoms after travel depends on your situation:

Zika Virus | CDC

Zika Virus | CDC

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People

Zika



Cases At-A-Glance


  • US States and DC: 2,112
  • US Territories: 4,418
*Source: Pregnancy Registries as of August 8, 2017


  • US States and DC: 5,415
  • US Territories: 37,012
*Source: ArboNET as of August 16, 2017